The wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the gray/grey wolf, is a canine native to the wilderness and remote areas of Eurasia and North America. It is the largest extant member of its family, with males averaging 40 kg (88 lb) and females 35.5–37.7 kg (78–83 lb). It is distinguished from other Canis species by its larger size and less pointed features, particularly on the ears and muzzle. Its winter fur is long and bushy and predominantly a mottled gray in colour, although nearly pure white, red and brown to black also occur. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed., 2005), a standard reference work in zoology, recognizes 38 subspecies of C. lupus.

The wolf is the most specialized member of the genus Canis for cooperative big game hunting, as demonstrated by its morphological adaptations to tackling large prey, its more gregarious nature, and its highly advanced expressive behaviour. It is nonetheless closely related enough to smaller Canis species, such as the coyote and golden jackal, to produce fertile hybrids with them. It is the only species of Canis to have a range encompassing both Eurasia and North America. It is a social animal, travelling in nuclear families consisting of a mated pair accompanied by their adult offspring. The wolf is mainly a carnivore and feeds primarily on large wild ungulates, though it also eats smaller animals, livestock, carrion, and garbage. .

The global wolf population is estimated to be 300,000. It has a long history of association with humans, having been despised and hunted in most pastoral communities because of its attacks on livestock, while conversely being respected in some agrarian and hunter-gatherer societies. Although the fear of wolves is pervasive in many human societies, the majority of recorded attacks on people have been attributed to animals suffering from rabies. Non-rabid wolves have attacked and killed people, mainly children, but this is rare because wolves are relatively few, live away from people, and have developed a fear of humans due to their experiences with hunters and shepherds.

source : wikipedia.org

Lion & Tiger

Historically, a comparison of the tiger (Panthera tigris) versus the lion (Panthera leo) has been a popular topic of discussion by hunters, naturalists, artists, and poets, and continues to inspire the popular imagination. In the past, lions and tigers reportedly competed in the wilderness, where their ranges overlapped in Eurasia. The most common reported circumstance of their meeting is in captivity, either deliberately or accidentally.

Physical and behavioral comparison
Behavioural comparison
Both the lion and the tiger have fearsome reputations in their native areas in relation to prey, sympatric predators, and people. Both may prey on humans, though rates of man-eating tend to be higher for the tiger.

General differences in behaviour:

The lion is usually a social animal, while the tiger is solitary. For this reason, even if tigers had individual advantages over lions, such as in intelligence, lions often killed tigers in captivity by ganging up on them, whereas tigers tended not to form fighting gangs.
Lions roam in prides of up to 30 individuals headed by a mature male or group of related males, until an incumbent male is killed or driven away by a new male leader. The majority of single roaming lions tend to be males preparing for maturation and assimilation with a new or existing pride. While male lions are generally larger and stronger than female lions, it is the close-knit female pride alliance that typically hunts and provides for the pride. By contrast, tigers are often solitary, though they do socialize. During a mating tryst, a tiger and tigress are hostile to other creatures, with the same applying to lions.
More specifically, however, the Asiatic lion has similarities and differences with both its African relative and the tiger. For example, Asiatic lions are social like their African relatives, and females may be promiscuous. However, the structures of the prides of African and Asiatic lions vary, with male Asiatic lions usually associating with females during times of mating, similar to tigers, and whereas Asiatic lionesses and tigresses may practice promiscuity in order to defend their cubs, African lionesses are believed not to do it for that purpose.

Coexistence in the Eurasian wilderness
Currently, India is the only country confirmed to have both wild lions and tigers, specifically Asiatic lions and Bengal tigers. Though they do not share the same territory, they did in the past, and there is a project mentioned below that could lead to their meeting in the wild.

Before the end of the 20th Century, Asiatic lions and Caspian tigers had occurred in other Asian or Eurasian nations, including Iran. As such, there is a word for ‘Lion’, which can also mean ‘Tiger’, and is used in Iran, South Asia and other areas, that is ‘Sher’ or ‘Shir’ (Persian: شیر‎), and its significance is discussed below.

According to Colin Tudge (2011), given that both cats hunt large herbivores, it is likely that they had been in competition in Asia. Despite their social nature, lions might have competed with tigers on an individual basis, as they would with each other.

Apart from the possibility of competition, there are legends of Asiatic lions and tigers breeding to produce hybrid offspring, which would be ligers or tigons. From the fossil record, besides genetics, it would appear that the modern lion and tiger were present in Eurasia since the Pleistocene, when now-extinct relatives also existed there. Additionally, in the days before Indian Independence, the Maharaja of Gwalior introduced African lions into his area, which is a habitat for Bengal tigers.

An Asiatic lion in Gir Forest, Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests’ ecoregion, India

T-12 the Bengal tiger in Ranthambore National Park, Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests’ ecoregion, India
The possibility of conflict, between lions and tigers, had been raised in relation to India’s Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project, which was meant to introduce the Gir Forest’s lions to another reserve which is considered to be within the former range of the Asiatic lion, that is Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh, before December 2017. Kuno was reported to contain some tigers that came from Ranthambore Park, including one called ‘T-38’. Concerns were raised that the co-presence of lions and tigers would “trigger frequent clashes.” The University of Minnesota’s Lion Research Project describes one reason to delay the introduction of lions to Kuno Palpur, is the fear that tigers living there would kill the incoming lions. In a one-on-one encounter, it is believed that a Bengal tiger could beat an Indian lion, given its weight advantage. Despite the fact that the habitats of Indian lions and tigers are similar means that they both live in conditions that favor solitary hunters of prey, these lions are social like their African relatives, and may form fighting groups, whereas tigers are usually solitary. The american biologist Craig Packer considers that a group of lions (two to three males) or lionesses (two to four females) is more than a match for a single tiger or tigress (see § Temperament). Craig Packer is of the opinion that, in order for Asiatic lions to survive in an area with Bengal tigers, the lions would have to be translocated there as intact groups rather than as individuals.

Reginald Innes Pocock (1939) mentioned that some people had the opinion that the tiger played a role in the near-extinction of the Indian lion, but he dismissed this view as ‘fanciful’. According to him, there was evidence that tigers inhabited the Indian Subcontinent before lions. The tigers likely entered Northern India from the eastern end of the Himalayas, through Burma, and started spreading throughout the area, before the lions likely entered Northern India from Balochistan or Persia, and spread to places like the Bengal and the Nerbudda River. Because of that, before the presence of man could limit the spread of lions, tigers reached parts of India that lions did not reach. However, the presence of tigers throughout India did not stop the spread of lions there, in the first place, so Pocock said that it is unlikely that Bengal tigers played a role, significant or subordinate, in the near-extinction of the Indian lion, rather, that man was responsible for it as was the case with the decline in tigers’ numbers. As such, Pocock thought that it was unlikely that serious competition between them regularly occurred, and that even if Indian lions and tigers met, the chance that they would fight for survival was as good as the chance that they would choose to avoid each other, and that their chances of success, if they were to clash, were as good as each other’s.

source : wikipedia.org

Panda Bear New Tab for Google Chrome

Pandas, which look very cute in black and white and chubby, are from the family of small batches. The pandas are one of the least common, most interesting animal species with a large, and endangered bear species with large black spots on the white pelt.

Pandas live in China. For the first time in 1936, a live panda was placed in the zoo and only fourteen pandas were caught there. The reason for this is the difficult and approachable environment in which the great panda lives. Pandas live in mountains covered with dense forests. The top of these mountains is always covered with snow and fog. The narrow straits and deep rivers that are difficult to detect on the map make it difficult to reach these mountains. Due to these obstacles, the great panda was discovered by French zoologist Pere David in 1869. Since then, experts have difficulty in classifying this animal.


The large panda weighs 75-180 pounds and is a 1-1.6 m long animal including the shrinking tail. The feathers in the trunk are white and yellowish; the feathers around the arms, legs, shoulders, ears and eyes are colored black.

Although it is thought that it was not fed with anything other than bamboo, it could actually live without eating bamboo by feeding with other juicy plants. The caught pandas caught even cooked meat. However, they are mostly fed with bamboos when they live naturally. Especially when they eat the newly sprouted bamboos, they throw away the ones that had been cartilage.

The large panda sits on the ground as it feeds, opens its legs and catches its thin branches with its front paw using a strong false thumb. This sixth finger, which is not found in other animals, is actually a protrusion of the wrist bone, which has gained the thumb size and flexibility in the lower part of the foot and is prone to tearing action. An effective musculature has been developed in his head which allows him to pellet his hard foods. The molars are large and flat, and are much wider than those of the skull bears. His stomach is as hard and muscular as the grind of a chicken, and resistant to splinters and fibers. Unlike other herbivorous mammals, especially bears, the intestines in these animals are very short.

Large pandas are similar to bear at first glance, because their skeletons are heavy enough to carry very large heads. The offspring of the large panda are born after a 120-140 day pregnancy cycle and weigh only 142 g. This corresponds to about 1/800 of the weight of an adult large panda.

The number of people living in the wild is about 2 thousand of the Pandas, whose species is at stake. The pandas cover 99 percent of their daily nutrient needs. Every panda in the world belongs to China. China pandas rent to other countries. Pandas can remove up to 40 times a day. Panda researchers wear panda costume while doing their research. The life of a panda in the wild is about 20 years and in the zoo they can live up to 35 years. The pandas are suitable for breeding only 3 days a year. panda spend about 55 percent of the day for bamboo picking and eating. Pandas are living for 2-3 million years on Earth. When a panda is born anywhere in the world it is sent to China to help keep the gene pool wide. 60 thousand to 100 thousand dollars are sold in the figure. Pandas are among the highest mammalian bites. Although pandas resemble bears as their body structure, they are most similar to raccoons. As bamboos, the main food source of pandas, are reduced in nutritional value, pandas consume about 20 kilograms of bamboo per day. When the pandas are born, they weigh only 140 grams and are blind. The size of their mother is about 900 da. The pandas are a good climber. The Europeans became aware of the presence of the panda in 1869.

Panda New Tab for Google Chrome

Panda is a herbivorous animal in the mammalian class. But giant pandas are known to be herbivorous and carnivorous. Pandas are one of the extinct animal species. Panda pups are born with an average weight of 100 grams. Puppies are very small compared to adult pandas. The size of the adult pandas is approximately 1.5 m. Newborn pandas need breastfeeding every 2 hours. When they are three months old, they start walking. Panda puppies become 50 kg when they are 1.5 years old. Because their teeth are strong enough to eat bamboo. They spend about 14 hours of the day eating bamboo.

In the wild, it is believed that there were 1000 panda animals in the wild and 100 in the zoos. Most of these endangered animals now live in bamboo forests. So she prefers to live on the foggy, rainy mountain foothills of southwest China. The giant panda, the carnivorous panda, lives in the Himalayas. Pandas have tail lengths of approximately 25 cm. He loves to see these animals all over the world, he loves. These animals with their cheeks plump live with their mother. Every panda in the world belongs to China. China rents pandas to other countries. The pandas resemble bears in body form, but they are most similar to raccoons.


There are usually two strategies for hunters in hunting: combat or escape. Many hunters prefer to escape from their predators, because predators are often more complex and deadly weapons than their prey: claws, teeth, muscles, and so on … Unlike the ones we’re used to in bears, pandas are animals that can fall prey. Normally other bear species have no natural predators. However, pandas can be hunted by coyotes and leopards. Panda puppies can sometimes be caught by tree censors. Apart from this, there is not a lot of hunters who dare to approach a panda with their big size.

The pandas are less aggressive than the other bear cousins ​​and are more incapable of defending themselves; however, they have many advantages in the evolutionary process. First of all, we need to mention that pandas are able to inflict extremely deadly wounds both on their predators and on other living things around them when they get angry. The teeth of bears are specialized in such a way that they can easily break the hard bodies of a plant (bamboos) that we can use as furniture materials due to its durability. These teeth, just like the other bears, are supported by strong jaws that almost no animal can easily escape. An example of this can be seen from the penguin Gu Gu in Beijing Zoo. Gu Gu attacked, each time entering the region without permission and inexperienced 3 visitors, their bodies were taken to the hospital with fatal wounds.

The pandas are a little shy creatures, they don’t want to enter the areas where people are. This limits their living space considerably. Unfortunately, as people continue to settle in higher places in the mountains, the habitat of pandas continues to shrink. On February 4, Pandas Day was selected for pandas. On that date there are events for the pandas. Pandas live on Earth for 2-3 million years. Europeans became aware of the panda animals in 1869.

Pandas live alone until mating. This situation only changes in April and May. The female pandas are very selective on the spouse. Since they are an endangered species of animal, their peers are few. However, female pandas do not like every handsome panda. If the female panda wants, the male panda can mate. The other obstacles are that men do not have much time to flirt. Because the female pandas can take up to 5 or 3 days per year to mate. Pandas have a very special mail soft in black and white. Some people illegally sell panda fur between 60 thousand and 100 thousand dollars.